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Main article: Weapons of the Vietnam War. Further information: Mayaguez incident and Indochina refugee crisis. Main article: Vietnam War casualties. See also: Vietnam War body count controversy. Main article: Vietnam War films. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Vietnam stab-in-the-back myth. Vietnam portal United States portal War portal s portal s portal s portal. Fitzgibbon's family, the start date of the Vietnam War according to the U.

I've told you that when I want you I'll call you. Stennis MS and Richard B. Russell Jr. Ford MI and Leslie C. Arends IL. Arends and Ford were leaders of the Republican minority and the other three were Democrats on either the Armed Services or Appropriations committees. Jackson estimated that 65, South Vietnamese were executed for political reasons between and , based on a survey of Vietnamese refugees who claimed to have personally witnessed 47 executions.

However, "their methodology was reviewed and criticized as invalid by authors Gareth Porter and James Roberts. Rather than arguing that this duplication rate proves there were very few executions in post-war Vietnam, Porter and Roberts suggest it is an artifact of the self-selected nature of the participants in the Desbarats-Jackson study, as the authors followed subjects's recommendations on other refugees to interview.

Diplomatic History. JSTOR Retrieved 29 July Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN University of Malaya Student Repository. Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 16 October The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February , he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon.

These included a total of 45, single-barrel shotguns, armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in , he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5, Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of U.

It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.

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Event occurs at minutes. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June New Zealand and the Vietnam War. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 10 June The New York Times. Department of the Army. Embassy of South Vietnam. March Retrieved 24 February The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam. British Medical Journal.

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First, this decree was issued in for the rent and interest reduction campaign that preceded the far more radical land redistribution and party rectification campaigns or waves that followed during — Second, the decree was meant to apply to free areas under the control of the Viet Minh government , not to the areas under French control that would be liberated in — and that would experience a far more violent struggle.

Thus the number of 13, executed people seems to be a low-end estimate of the real number. In this paper Moise 7—9 modified his earlier estimate in his book which was 5, and accepted an estimate close to 15, executions. Moise made the case based on Hungarian reports provided by Balazs, but the document I cited above offers more direct evidence for his revised estimate.

This document also suggests that the total number should be adjusted up some more, taking into consideration the later radical phase of the campaign, the unauthorized killings at the local level, and the suicides following arrest and torture the central government bore less direct responsibility for these cases, however. Szalontai, Balazs November Cold War History. S2CID Vu, Tuong Cambridge University Press.

Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China. Yet the Vietnamese 'land reform' campaign Beacon Press. South Vietnam, which had not signed the Geneva Accords, did not believe the Communists in North Vietnam would allow a fair election. With the French gone, a return to the traditional power struggle between north and south had begun again.

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Soldiers Assaulted their Officers in Vietnam. Texas Tech University Press. Retrieved 3 June The Nation. Retrieved 28 February University of Kansas Press. The Times-News. Hendersonville, NC. Retrieved 4 September Roberts; Tuan V. Nguyen 13 February International Journal of Epidemiology. Retrieved 23 February In his page judgment, the judge observed: "Despite the fact that Congress and the President were fully advised of a substantial belief that the herbicide spraying in Vietnam was a violation of international law, they acted on their view that it was not a violation at the time.

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Cooper, John F. Communist Nations' Military Assistance. Crook, John R. American Journal of International Law. Demma, Vincent H. Army in Vietnam". American Military History. Retrieved 13 September Eisenhower, Dwight D. Mandate for Change. Holm, Jeanne Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history.

The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields. Communist forces were under a single command structure set up in About of the "regroupees" of were sent south on the trail during its first year of operation.

In the U. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard M. Only 16 months later, the Cuban Missile Crisis 16—28 October played out on television worldwide. It was the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war , and the U. The Kennedy administration remained essentially committed to the Cold War foreign policy inherited from the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. In , the U. Kennedy believed that yet another failure to gain control and stop communist expansion would irreparably damage U.

He was determined to "draw a line in the sand" and prevent a communist victory in Vietnam. He told James Reston of The New York Times immediately after his Vienna summit meeting with Khrushchev, "Now we have a problem making our power credible and Vietnam looks like the place. South Vietnam , Military Regions, He was against the deployment of American combat troops and observed that "to introduce U. Poor leadership, corruption, and political promotions all played a part in weakening the ARVN.

The frequency of guerrilla attacks rose as the insurgency gathered steam. While Hanoi's support for the Viet Cong played a role, South Vietnamese governmental incompetence was at the core of the crisis. One major issue Kennedy raised was whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the United States.

Although Kennedy stressed long-range missile parity with the Soviets, he was also interested in using special forces for counterinsurgency warfare in Third World countries threatened by communist insurgencies. Although they were originally intended for use behind front lines after a conventional Soviet invasion of Europe, Kennedy believed that the guerrilla tactics employed by special forces such as the Green Berets would be effective in a "brush fire" war in Vietnam.

Kennedy and McNamara. In April , John Kenneth Galbraith warned Kennedy of the "danger we shall replace the French as a colonial force in the area and bleed as the French did. The Strategic Hamlet Program was initiated in late This joint U. It was implemented in early and involved some forced relocation, village internment, and segregation of rural South Vietnamese into new communities where the peasantry would be isolated from the Viet Cong.

It was hoped these new communities would provide security for the peasants and strengthen the tie between them and the central government. However, by November the program had waned, and it officially ended in The inept performance of the ARVN was exemplified by failed actions such as the Battle of Ap Bac on 2 January , in which a small band of Viet Cong won a battle against a much larger and better-equipped South Vietnamese force, many of whose officers seemed reluctant even to engage in combat.

Cao was a Catholic who had been promoted due to religion and fidelity rather than skill, and his main job was to preserve his forces to stave off coup attempts; he had earlier vomited during a communist attack. He seemed concerned only with fending off coups and had become more paranoid after attempts in and , which he partly attributed to U.

As Robert F. He was difficult to reason with Strategic hamlets had failed The South Vietnamese regime was incapable of winning the peasantry because of its class base among landlords. Indeed, there was no longer a 'regime' in the sense of a relatively stable political alliance and functioning bureaucracy.

Instead, civil government and military operations had virtually ceased. The National Liberation Front had made great progress and was close to declaring provisional revolutionary governments in large areas. This resulted in mass protests against discriminatory policies that gave privileges to the Catholic Church and its adherents over the Buddhist majority.

Thuc's anniversary celebrations shortly before Vesak had been bankrolled by the government, and Vatican flags were displayed prominently. This proposal was conveyed to the U. When Kennedy was informed, Maxwell Taylor remembered that he "rushed from the room with a look of shock and dismay on his face. Ambassador Lodge informed Kennedy that "the prospects now are for a shorter war". Following the coup, chaos ensued. Hanoi took advantage of the situation and increased its support for the guerrillas.

South Vietnam entered a period of extreme political instability, as one military government toppled another in quick succession. They were however criticized for ignoring the political nature of the insurgency.

The military leadership in Washington, however, was hostile to any role for U. The indigenous forces numbered in the tens of thousands and they conducted direct action missions, led by paramilitary officers, against the Communist Pathet Lao forces and their North Vietnamese supporters. President Kennedy was assassinated on 22 November Vice President Lyndon B.

Johnson had not been heavily involved with policy toward Vietnam; [75] [A 4] however, upon becoming president, Johnson immediately focused on the war. On 24 November , he said, "the battle against communism The military revolutionary council, meeting in lieu of a strong South Vietnamese leader, was made up of 12 members.

In a statement similar to that made to the French almost two decades earlier, Ho Chi Minh warned that if the Americans "want to make war for twenty years then we shall make war for twenty years. If they want to make peace, we shall make peace and invite them to afternoon tea. On 2 August , USS Maddox , on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, allegedly fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin.

The circumstances of the attacks were murky. An undated NSA publication declassified in revealed that there was no attack on 4 August. Universal Newsreel film about the attack on the U. Army base in Pleiku and the U.

The second "attack" led to retaliatory airstrikes , and prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on 7 August Following an attack on a U. Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Arc Light expanded aerial bombardment and ground support operations. It was additionally aimed at bolstering the morale of the South Vietnamese. Bombing was not restricted to North Vietnam. The ostensibly neutral Laos had become the scene of a civil war , pitting the Laotian government backed by the US against the Pathet Lao and its North Vietnamese allies.

Between and , the U. The objective of stopping North Vietnam and the Viet Cong was never reached. Following the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Hanoi anticipated the arrival of US troops and began expanding the Viet Cong, as well as sending increasing numbers of North Vietnamese personnel southwards.

At this phase they were outfitting the Viet Cong forces and standardising their equipment with AK rifles and other supplies, as well as forming the 9th Division. Between and the Army's strength rose from about , to nearly a million men. Group was tasked with expanding the Ho Chi Minh trail, in light of the near constant bombardment by US warplanes. The war had begun to shift into the final, conventional warfare phase of Hanoi's three-stage protracted warfare model. The Viet Cong was now tasked with destroying the ARVN and capturing and holding areas; however, the Viet Cong was not yet strong enough to assault major towns and cities.

Previously, the VC had utilised hit-and-run guerrilla tactics. At Binh Gia, however, they had defeated a strong ARVN force in a conventional battle and remained in the field for four days. A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines , moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 miles 24 km west of Da Nang Air Base , On 8 March , 3, U. Marines were landed near Da Nang, South Vietnam. The first deployment of 3, in March was increased to nearly , by December.

Regardless of political policies, U. General William Westmoreland informed Admiral U. Grant Sharp Jr. Pacific forces, that the situation was critical. The plan was approved by Johnson and marked a profound departure from the previous administration's insistence that the government of South Vietnam was responsible for defeating the guerrillas.

Westmoreland predicted victory by the end of Instead he emphasized continuity. The opponents were locked in a cycle of escalation. The American buildup transformed the South Vietnamese economy and had a profound effect on society. South Vietnam was inundated with manufactured goods. Meanwhile, the one-year tour of duty of American soldiers deprived units of experienced leadership. As one observer noted "we were not in Vietnam for 10 years, but for one year 10 times.

Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian. Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines [38] all agreed to send troops. South Korea would later ask to join the Many Flags program in return for economic compensation.

In November , the U. By , these operations had generated large-scale internal refugees, numbering nearly 2. This ended a series of coups that had happened more than once a year. In , Thieu became president with Ky as his deputy, after rigged elections. Although they were nominally a civilian government, Ky was supposed to maintain real power through a behind-the-scenes military body. However, Thieu outmanoeuvred and sidelined Ky by filling the ranks with generals from his faction.

Thieu was also accused of murdering Ky loyalists through contrived military accidents. Thieu, mistrustful and indecisive, remained president until , having won a one-candidate election in A US " tunnel rat " soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel. Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle. The Johnson administration employed a "policy of minimum candor" [38] in its dealings with the media.

Military information officers sought to manage media coverage by emphasizing stories that portrayed progress in the war. Over time, this policy damaged the public trust in official pronouncements. As the media's coverage of the war and that of the Pentagon diverged, a so-called credibility gap developed. These actions were part of a diversionary strategy meant to draw US forces towards the Central Highlands.

Embassy in Saigon. During the first month of the offensive, 1, Americans and other allied troops, 2, ARVN and 14, civilians were killed. The PAVN's own official records of their losses across all three offensives was 45, killed and , total casualties. The failure to spark a general uprising and the lack of defections among the ARVN units meant both war goals of Hanoi had fallen flat at enormous costs. Prior to Tet, in November , Westmoreland had spearheaded a public relations drive for the Johnson administration to bolster flagging public support.

At one point in , Westmoreland considered the use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam in a contingency plan codenamed Fracture Jaw , which was abandoned when it became known to the White House. Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement. Negotiations stagnated for five months, until Johnson gave orders to halt the bombing of North Vietnam.

At the same time, Hanoi realized it could not achieve a "total victory" and employed a strategy known as "talking while fighting, fighting while talking", in which military offensives would occur concurrently with negotiations. Johnson declined to run for re-election as his approval rating slumped from 48 to 36 percent.

Vietnam was a major political issue during the United States presidential election in The election was won by Republican party candidate Richard Nixon who claimed to have a secret plan to end the war.

In September , Ho Chi Minh died at age seventy-nine. The anti-war movement was gaining strength in the United States. Nixon appealed to the " silent majority " of Americans who he said supported the war without showing it in public. But revelations of the My Lai Massacre , [11] —21 in which a U. Army unit raped and killed civilians, and the " Green Beret Affair ", where eight Special Forces soldiers, including the 5th Special Forces Group Commander, were arrested for the murder [] of a suspected double agent, [] provoked national and international outrage.

The top-secret history of U. The Supreme Court ruled that its publication was legal. Following the Tet Offensive and the decreasing support among the U. Open refusal to engage in patrols or carry out orders and disobedience began to emerge during this period, with one notable case of an entire company refusing orders to engage or carry out operations.

Forces was characterised by lowered morale, lack of motivation, and poor leadership. In the last years of the Army's retreat, its remaining forces were relegated to static security. The American Army's decline was readily apparent in this final stage. Racial incidents, drug abuse, combat disobedience, and crime reflected growing idleness, resentment, and frustration An entire American army was sacrificed on the battlefield of Vietnam.

Beginning in , American troops were withdrawn from border areas where most of the fighting took place and instead redeployed along the coast and interior. US casualties in were less than half of casualties after being relegated to less active combat. In , Nixon announced the withdrawal of an additional , American troops, reducing the number of Americans to , Only five high-ranking congressional officials were informed of Operation Menu.

In March , Prince Sihanouk was deposed by his pro-American prime minister Lon Nol , who demanded that North Vietnamese troops leave Cambodia or face military action. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days. An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.

The invasion of Cambodia sparked nationwide U. Four students were killed by National Guardsmen in May during a protest at Kent State University in Ohio, which provoked further public outrage in the United States. The reaction to the incident by the Nixon administration was seen as callous and indifferent, reinvigorating the declining anti-war movement.

Air Force continued to heavily bomb Cambodia in support of the Cambodian government as part of Operation Freedom Deal. Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, This offensive would also be the first time the PAVN would field-test its combined arms force. During the withdrawal the PAVN counterattack had forced a panicked rout. The PAVN quickly overran the northern provinces and in coordination with other forces attacked from Cambodia, threatening to cut the country in half.

The war was central to the U. President Thieu demanded changes to the peace accord upon its discovery, and when North Vietnam went public with the agreement's details, the Nixon administration claimed they were attempting to embarrass the president.

The negotiations became deadlocked when Hanoi demanded new changes. On 15 January , all U. There was a sixty-day period for the total withdrawal of U. During the course of the Vietnam War a large segment of the American population came to be opposed to U.

Public opinion steadily turned against the war following and by only a third of Americans believed that the U. Early opposition to U. John F. Kennedy, while senator, opposed involvement in Vietnam. Many young people protested because they were the ones being drafted , while others were against the war because the anti-war movement grew increasingly popular among the counterculture. Some advocates within the peace movement advocated a unilateral withdrawal of U.

Opposition to the Vietnam War tended to unite groups opposed to U. Others, such as Stephen Spiro , opposed the war based on the theory of Just War. High-profile opposition to the Vietnam War increasingly turned to mass protests in an effort to shift U. Riots broke out at the Democratic National Convention during protests against the war.

On 15 October , the Vietnam Moratorium attracted millions of Americans. In the lead-up to the ceasefire on 28 January, both sides attempted to maximize the land and population under their control in a campaign known as the War of the flags. Fighting continued after the ceasefire, this time without US participation, and continued throughout the year.

On 15 March , Nixon implied the US would intervene again militarily if the North launched a full offensive and Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger re-affirmed this position during his June confirmation hearings. Public and congressional reaction to Nixon's statement was unfavorable, prompting the U. Senate to pass the Case—Church Amendment to prohibit any intervention. Logistics would be upgraded until the North was in a position to launch a massive invasion of the South, projected for the — dry season.

Tra calculated that this date would be Hanoi's last opportunity to strike before Saigon's army could be fully trained. Within South Vietnam, the departure of the US military and the global recession that followed the oil crisis hurt an economy that was partly dependent on U.

This was despite there being over 25, South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags. The strike was designed to solve local logistical problems, gauge the reaction of South Vietnamese forces, and determine whether the U. At the start of , the South Vietnamese had three times as much artillery and twice the number of tanks and armoured cars as the PAVN. Congress also voted in further restrictions on funding to be phased in through and to culminate in a total cutoff in Phuoc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on 6 January Ford desperately asked Congress for funds to assist and re-supply the South before it was overrun.

The speed of this success led the Politburo to reassess its strategy. On 10 March , General Dung launched Campaign , a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery. If the town could be taken, the provincial capital of Pleiku and the road to the coast would be exposed for a planned campaign in Once again, Hanoi was surprised by the speed of their success.

Dung now urged the Politburo to allow him to seize Pleiku immediately and then turn his attention to Kon Tum. He argued that with two months of good weather remaining until the onset of the monsoon, it would be irresponsible to not take advantage of the situation. While the bulk of ARVN forces attempted to flee, isolated units fought desperately. Civilians flooded the airport and the docks hoping for any mode of escape. With the fall of the city, the defense of the Central Highlands and Northern provinces came to an end.

With the northern half of the country under their control, the Politburo ordered General Dung to launch the final offensive against Saigon. Hanoi wished to avoid the coming monsoon and prevent any redeployment of ARVN forces defending the capital. On 21 April, however, the exhausted garrison was ordered to withdraw towards Saigon. In a scathing attack, he suggested that Kissinger had tricked him into signing the Paris peace agreement two years earlier, promising military aid that failed to materialize.

Thousands of refugees streamed southward, ahead of the main communist onslaught. The city was defended by about 30, ARVN troops. With the air exit closed, large numbers of civilians found that they had no way out. Chaos, unrest, and panic broke out as hysterical South Vietnamese officials and civilians scrambled to leave Saigon. Martial law was declared.

American helicopters began evacuating South Vietnamese, U. Operation Frequent Wind had been delayed until the last possible moment, because of U. Ambassador Graham Martin 's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached. Frequent Wind was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. It began on 29 April, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited space.

In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. On 30 April , PAVN troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations. Two tanks from the rd Tank Brigade of the 2nd Corps crashed through the gates of the Independence Palace and the Viet Cong flag was raised above it at am local time.

In , China extended diplomatic recognition to the Viet Minh 's Democratic Republic of Vietnam and sent weapons, as well as military advisors led by Luo Guibo to assist the Viet Minh in its war with the French. In the summer of , Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90, rifles and guns free of charge.

Starting in , China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, rebuild roads and railroads, and to perform other engineering works. This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South.

Sino-Soviet relations soured after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August The Chinese also began financing the Khmer Rouge as a counterweight to the Vietnamese communists at this time. China "armed and trained" the Khmer Rouge during the civil war and continued to aid them for years afterward. When Vietnam responded with an invasion that toppled the Khmer Rouge, China launched a brief, punitive invasion of Vietnam in COSVN using airspeed and direction would calculate the bombing target and tell any assets to move "perpendicularly to the attack trajectory.

The Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and other military equipment. Soviet crews fired Soviet-made surface-to-air missiles at U. F-4 Phantoms , which were shot down over Thanh Hoa in Over a dozen Soviet citizens lost their lives in this conflict.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in , Russian officials acknowledged that the Soviet Union had stationed up to 3, troops in Vietnam during the war. Some Russian sources give more specific numbers: the hardware donated by the Soviet Union included 2, tanks, 7, artillery guns, over 5, anti-aircraft guns, surface-to-air missile launchers. In addition, Soviet military schools and academies began training Vietnamese soldiers — in all more than 10, military personnel.

As a result of a decision of the Korean Workers' Party in October , in early North Korea sent a fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese st and rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi. They stayed through , and pilots were reported to have served. In addition, at least two anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent as well. North Korea also sent weapons, ammunition and two million sets of uniforms to their comrades in North Vietnam.

The contributions to North Vietnam by the communist Republic of Cuba, under Fidel Castro , is still a matter of debate. There are numerous allegations by former U. Presidential candidate and former Vietnam prisoner of war, according to his book Faith of My Fathers. On the anti-communist side, South Korea a.

Kennedy, but Kennedy disagreed. Approximately , South Korean soldiers were sent to Vietnam, [] each serving a one-year tour of duty. Maximum troop levels peaked at 50, in , however all were withdrawn by South Korea claimed to have killed 41, Viet Cong fighters. Both nations had gained experience in counterinsurgency and jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency and World War II. Their governments subscribed to the Domino theory. Australia began by sending advisors to Vietnam in , and combat troops were committed in More than 60, Australian personnel were involved during the course of the war, of which were killed and more than 3, wounded.

Some 10, Filipino troops were dispatched to South Vietnam. They were primarily engaged in medical and other civilian pacification projects. Thai Army formations, including the "Queen's Cobra" battalion, saw action in South Vietnam between and Thai forces saw much more action in the covert war in Laos between and , though Thai regular formations there were heavily outnumbered by the irregular "volunteers" of the CIA-sponsored Police Aerial Reconnaissance Units or PARU, who carried out reconnaissance activities on the western side of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Since November , the Taiwanese government secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the United States and South Vietnam. Canada, India and Poland constituted the International Control Commission , which was supposed to monitor the ceasefire agreement. A large number of war crimes took place during the Vietnam War. War crimes were committed by both sides during the conflict and included rape, massacres of civilians, bombings of civilian targets, terrorism , the widespread use of torture and the murder of prisoners of war.

Additional common crimes included theft, arson, and the destruction of property. The investigation compiled over 9, pages of investigative files, sworn statements by witnesses and status reports for top military officers, indicating that incidents had factual basis. In a series of investigative reports by the Toledo Blade uncovered a large number of unreported American war crimes particularly from the Tiger Force unit. In the later U. Senate and stated that over U. According to political scientist R.

Rummel , U. Air force captain, Brian Wilson, who carried out bomb-damage assessments in free-fire zones throughout the delta, saw the results firsthand. In my report I described them as so many women between fifteen and twenty-five and so many children—usually in their mothers' arms or very close to them—and so many old people.

Viet Cong insurgents reportedly sliced off the genitals of village chiefs and sewed them inside their bloody mouths, cut off the tongues of helpless victims, rammed bamboo lances through one ear and out the other, slashed open the wombs of pregnant women, machine gunned children, hacked men and women to pieces with machetes, and cut off the fingers of small children who dared to get an education.

Senate report, squads were assigned monthly assassination quotas. According to Guenter Lewy, Viet Cong insurgents assassinated at least 37, civilians in South Vietnam and routinely employed terror on a daily basis. Khmer Rouge insurgents also reportedly committed atrocities during the war. These include the murder of civilians and POWs by slowly sawing off their heads a little more each day, [] the destruction of Buddhist wats and the killing of monks, [] [ unreliable source?

The Khmer Rouge forcibly evacuated the entire city after taking it, in what has been described as a death march : Francois Ponchaud wrote that "I shall never forget one cripple who had neither hands nor feet, writhing along the ground like a severed worm, or a weeping father carrying his ten-year old daughter wrapped in a sheet tied around his neck like a sling, or the man with his foot dangling at the end of a leg to which it was attached by nothing but skin"; [] John Swain recalled that the Khmer Rouge were "tipping out patients from the hospitals like garbage into the streets In five years of war, this is the greatest caravan of human misery I have seen.

During the Vietnam War, American women served on active duty doing a variety of jobs. Most nurses who volunteered to serve in Vietnam came from predominantly working or middle-class families with histories of military service. The majority of these women were white Catholics and Protestants. First Lieutenant Sharon Lane was the only female military nurse to be killed by enemy gunfire during the war, on 8 June At the start of the Vietnam War, it was commonly thought that American women had no place in the military.

Their traditional place had been in the domestic sphere, but with the war came opportunity for the expansion of gender roles. In Vietnam, women held a variety of jobs which included operating complex data processing equipment and serving as stenographers.

The women who served in the military were solely volunteers. They faced a plethora of challenges, one of which was the relatively small number of female soldiers. Living in a male-dominated environment created tensions between the sexes. While this high male to female ratio was often uncomfortable for women, many men reported that having women in the field with them boosted their morale. By , approximately 7, women had served in Vietnam in the Southeast Asian theater.

American women serving in Vietnam were subject to societal stereotypes. Many Americans either considered females serving in Vietnam masculine for living under the army discipline, or judged them to be women of questionable moral character who enlisted for the sole purpose of seducing men. Although female military nurses lived in a heavily male environment, very few cases of sexual harassment were ever reported. This article does not contain any citations or references.

Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation. Unlike the American women who went to Vietnam, North Vietnamese women were enlisted and fought in the combat zone as well as provided manual labor to keep the Ho Chi Minh Trail open, cook for the troops, and some served as " comfort women " for male communist fighters.

They also worked in the rice fields in North Vietnam and Viet Cong-held farming areas in South Vietnam's Mekong Delta region to provide food for their families and the war effort. Some women also served for the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong intelligence services. Some, like in the WAFC, fought in combat with other soldiers. Others have served as nurses and doctors in the battlefield and in military hospitals, or served in South Vietnam or America's intelligence agencies.

Marines complete construction of M howitzer positions at a mountain-top fire support base , Communist forces were principally armed with Chinese [] and Soviet weaponry [] though some Viet Cong guerrilla units were equipped with Western infantry weapons either captured from French stocks during the first Indochina war or from ARVN units or requisitioned through illicit purchase.

It was not uncommon to see U. Bicycles carried up to pounds of weight and were thus effective transport vehicles. While the Viet Cong had both amphibious tanks such as the PT and light tanks such as the Type 62 , they also used bicycles to transport munitions.

The American M16 , which replaced the M14 , was considered more accurate and was lighter than the AK but was prone to jamming. Oftentimes the gun suffered from a jamming flaw known as "failure to extract," which meant that a spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a bullet flew out the muzzle. The M60 machine gun GPMG General Purpose Machine Gun was the main machine gun of the US army at the time and many of them were put on helicopters, to provide suppressive fire when landing in hostile regions.

The MAC machine pistol was supplied to many special forces troops in the midpoint of the war. It also armed many CIA agents in the field. The AC is a heavily armed ground-attack aircraft variant of the C Hercules transport plane; it was used to provide close air support , air interdiction and force protection. The Huey is a military helicopter powered by a single, turboshaft engine, with a two-bladed main rotor and tail rotor. Approximately 7, UH-1 aircraft saw service in Vietnam.

The Claymore M18A1 , an anti-personnel mine, was widely used during the war. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control and shoots a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun. Rummel , an analyst of political killings, estimated that about 50, South Vietnamese deported to "New Economic Zones" died performing hard labor, [] out of the 1 million that were sent.

Under the leadership of Pol Pot , the Khmer Rouge would eventually kill 1—3 million Cambodians in the killing fields , out of a population of around 8 million. The Vietnamese installed a new government led by Khmer Rouge defectors, which killed tens of thousands and enslaved hundreds of thousands.

In response, China invaded Vietnam in The two countries fought a brief border war, known as the Sino-Vietnamese War. From to , some , ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees or were expelled across the land border with China. The government of Laos has been accused of committing genocide against the Hmong in collaboration with the People's Army of Vietnam , [] [] with up to , killed out of a population of , More than 3 million people fled from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, many as "boat people" in the Indochina refugee crisis.

Most Asian countries were unwilling to accept refugees. In the post-war era, Americans struggled to absorb the lessons of the military intervention. We thought that we were going into another Korean War , but this was a different country. Secondly, we didn't know our South Vietnamese allies And we knew less about North Vietnam. Who was Ho Chi Minh?

Nobody really knew. So, until we know the enemy and know our allies and know ourselves, we'd better keep out of this kind of dirty business. It's very dangerous. Some have suggested that "the responsibility for the ultimate failure of this policy [America's withdrawal from Vietnam] lies not with the men who fought, but with those in Congress Yet in Vietnam the Army experienced tactical success and strategic failure Vietnam War Success rests not only on military progress but on correctly analyzing the nature of the particular conflict, understanding the enemy's strategy, and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of allies.

A new humility and a new sophistication may form the best parts of a complex heritage left to the Army by the long, bitter war in Vietnam. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in a secret memo to president Gerald Ford that "in terms of military tactics, we cannot help draw the conclusion that our armed forces are not suited to this kind of war.

Even the Special Forces who had been designed for it could not prevail. Doubts surfaced as to the effectiveness of large-scale, sustained bombing. As he remarked, "I still doubt that the North Vietnamese would have relented. The inability to bomb Hanoi to the bargaining table also illustrated another U.

The North's leadership was composed of hardened communists who had been fighting for thirty years. They had defeated the French, and their tenacity as both nationalists and communists was formidable. Ho Chi Minh is quoted as saying, "You can kill ten of my men for every one I kill of yours But even at these odds you will lose and I will win. The Vietnam War called into question the U.

Army doctrine. Marine Corps General Victor H. Krulak heavily criticised Westmoreland's attrition strategy, calling it "wasteful of American lives More than 3 million Americans served in the Vietnam War, some 1. Westheider wrote that "At the height of American involvement in , for example, there were , American military personnel in Vietnam, but only 80, were considered combat troops.

By war's end, 58, American soldiers had been killed, [A 3] more than , had been wounded, and at least 21, had been permanently disabled. An estimated , Americans left for Canada to avoid the Vietnam draft, [] and approximately 50, American servicemen deserted. As of , the U. One of the most controversial aspects of the U. They were used to defoliate large parts of the countryside to prevent the Viet Cong from being able to hide their weapons and encampments under the foliage.

These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain. Early in the American military effort, it was decided that since the enemy were hiding their activities under triple-canopy jungle, a useful first step might be to defoliate certain areas.

This was especially true of growth surrounding bases both large and small in what became known as Operation Ranch Hand. Corporations like Dow Chemical Company and Monsanto were given the task of developing herbicides for this purpose. The defoliants, which were distributed in drums marked with color-coded bands, included the " Rainbow Herbicides "— Agent Pink , Agent Green , Agent Purple , Agent Blue , Agent White , and, most famously, Agent Orange , which included dioxin as a by-product of its manufacture.

About 12 million gallons 45,, L of Agent Orange were sprayed over Southeast Asia during the American involvement [ citation needed ]. Navy patrol boats were vulnerable to attack from the undergrowth at the water's edge. In and , the Kennedy administration authorized the use of chemicals to destroy rice crops.

Air Force sprayed 20 million U. Another purpose of herbicide use was to drive civilian populations into RVN-controlled areas. Weinstein dismissed their case. In some areas of southern Vietnam, dioxin levels remain at over times the accepted international standard. Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer, multiple myeloma , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , B-cell lymphomas , soft-tissue sarcoma , chloracne , porphyria cutanea tarda , peripheral neuropathy , and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange.

Defense Departnment officials believed that these body count figures need to be deflated by 30 percent. In addition, Guenter Lewy assumes that one-third of the reported "enemy" killed may have been civilians, concluding that the actual number of deaths of communist military forces was probably closer to , About 60, Laotians also died, [] and 58, U.

The original statue was demolished in April The Vietnam War has been featured extensively in television, film, video games, music and literature in the participant countries. In Vietnam the diary has often been compared to The Diary of Anne Frank and both are used in literary education.

In American popular culture, the "Crazy Vietnam Veteran", who was suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, became a common stock character after the war. Further cinematic representations were released during the s and s, some of the most noteworthy examples being Michael Cimino 's The Deer Hunter , Francis Ford Coppola 's Apocalypse Now , Oliver Stone 's Platoon — based on his service in the U.

The modern classical composer George Crumb composed a string quartet, a threnody , regarding the war in titled Black Angels. Myths play a central role in the historiography of the Vietnam War, and have become a part of the culture of the United States. Much like the general historiography of the war, discussion of myth has focused on U. Recent scholarship has focused on "myth-busting", [] attacking the previous orthodox and revisionist schools of American historiography of the Vietnam War.

This scholarship challenges myths about American society and soldiery in the Vietnam War. Kuzmarov in The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs challenges the popular and Hollywood narrative that US soldiers were heavy drug users, [] in particular the notion that the My Lai massacre was caused by drug use.

Military Wiki Explore. Popular pages. Project maintenance. Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? Kennedy Presidency of Lyndon B. Vietnam War. History Talk 0. Indochina Wars. Military engagements of the Vietnam War. Further information: Terminology of the Vietnam War.

Main articles: Viet Cong and War in Vietnam — Main article: Joint warfare in South Vietnam, — Main article: Gulf of Tonkin incident. Further information: Credibility gap. Play media. Main article: Laotian Civil War. See also: Buddhist Uprising. Further information: G. See also: Russell Tribunal and Fulbright Hearings. For more details on this topic, see Ho Chi Minh Campaign.

Main article: Republic of China in the Vietnam War. Main article: Canada and the Vietnam War. Senate in []. Main article: Weapons of the Vietnam War. Further information: Mayaguez incident. Main article: Vietnam War casualties. Main article: Outline of the Vietnam War. Main article: Vietnam War films. See also: Vietnam stab-in-the-back myth. I've told you that when I want you I'll call you.

Stennis MS and Richard B. Russell Jr. Ford MI and Leslie C. Arends IL. Arends and Ford were leaders of the Republican minority and the other three were Democrats on either the Armed Services or Appropriations committees. Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 17 January Vietnam Studies Command and Control — Department of the Army.

BBC News. The Vietnam War from the Other Side. ISBN Retrieved 1 June University Press of Kentucky. Oxford University Press, Feb. Pantheon Books. South End Press. Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 June Kissinger's Year: Phoenix Press. Retrieved 18 August New York: PublicAffairs.

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